In addition, Parade magazine editor Jess Gorkin personally badgered presidential candidates John F. The centre of Baku changed over the course of 60 years to In Gorky, more than , sqm of living space was built, and in the Siberian town of Irkutsk some 19, sqm was built. Several people came up with the idea for a hotline. Not a flower in the windows, and not a patch of land covered with grass or shrubbery around. In Britain we refer to our houses by number of bedrooms not by any reference to the floor area, as is the standard in most other European countries.
Page Content. The case managers at the local VAMC are responsible for referring eligible homeless veterans to the city -- interested homeless veterans should contact their local VAMC directly.
For information about these services, contact the Care Directions Housing Information Services program at The Housing Information Specialist will match housing needs with appropriate housing providers in Maricopa and Pinal Counties.
In order to keep families and staff safe, we have implemented an appointment-only system effective Wednesday, April 1. Please keep in mind that the Section 8 waiting list is closed. If you are currently a part of the program, the best way to make an appointment is to directly contact your Housing Specialist by calling or emailing the staff listed on the attached Quadel Phoenix Contact Information.
A secure drop box is installed for participants to drop off information or they can send it electronically. In the majority of towns, most houses were no more than two storeys. In larger cities, buildings within the central area would extend up to three, four or five storeys.
For example in the Urals, it was Sverdlovsk, Nizhni-Tagil and Kemensk-Uralsk where buildings of up to five storeys were erected in the main streets, while the surrounding towns were all low-rise. In the larger cities of Leningrad and Moscow these scales would rise to over 10 storeys. In terms of who built the houses, approximately two-thirds of the dwellings in the USSR were built by state building organisations, while the remainder were built by the collective farms, housing cooperatives and individuals.
Many of the state industrial enterprises, such as iron and steel works, built big housing projects of low-rise, bungalow and two-storey houses and cottages.
Once built, these would be transferred to individual workers for their occupation. Each one has a personality of its own, some slightly different treatment of the facade which sets it apart from the rest. The owners are particularly proud of their gardens. While the state building organisations built most of the new housing that was much needed, there was also some encouragement to individuals to build their own houses with the assistance of state loans and in accordance with their local village or town plan.
The Academy of Architecture set up the Institute of Mass Construction with the object of producing designs for houses suitable for erection by people building their own homes. During a set of general principles of design for rural housing was prepared, taking into account the conditions that were expected to prevail after the war. It was agreed that the construction of separate bungalows and two-storey houses would best meet the demands of the time, and plans were drawn up accordingly.
These plans took into account the probable shortage of building materials and of skilled labour. In view of these two factors, allowances had to be made for maximum use of all sorts of local building materials, and architects were asked to bear in mind, when preparing their designs, that most of the houses put up in the country areas would probably not be built by skilled building workers, but by untrained local labour without mechanical aid.
Not only did it research, create and publish designs to assist in local rural house building, the institute also gave exhaustive directions for construction so that amateur builders would have full instructions to work from.
The size of rooms was planned in consultation with the institute responsible for designing household utility furniture. Every cottage had storage and outbuildings.
It was suggested and expected that gardens would be used for both fruit and vegetables, with the plans also providing some useful advice on garden layouts.
In style these cottages had a modest neatness, but the architects refrained from laying down any rules for decoration. Their main aim was to provide guidance for the most economical and convenient use of space. It was recognised that with so much varied local material and with so great a variety of climatic conditions to be taken into account, there could be no real standardisation. Local authorities and builders were expected to use their judgement and draw on the great human capacity for improvisation.
In the late s and early s the extensive developments of housing and community facilities were still typically low-rise, and showed serious attempts to reinterpret local building traditions in form as well as decoration, in many cases most successfully. Unfortunately, much of this work has been swept away in later redevelopments and is little known, though it might now have offered some useful models.
For example, the low-rise apartments in and around Moscow took the form of courtyards similar to old urban estates, a layout which was characteristic of the old city. By contrast, in Kiev, the layout was characterised by a more street-oriented architecture, with terraced housing and the use of florid Ukrainian sculpted decoration. In Central Asia, meanwhile, the equivalent housing was constructed with thick solid walls of high thermal mass with small apertures and deeply recessed shaded balconies, often reflecting local arch forms in their profile.
An example of a residential development in Liublino, Moscow, shows a layout based around central courtyards, with ornate planted gardens as well as garden space in front of the surrounding buildings. The rendered houses form a block around the garden. The block is predominantly two-storey, with elements of three-storey that add focal points to the building. The use of gables, corbel detailing, arched accesses through the block and generous proportions to the windows, creates a development that is extremely pleasing.
Images of new houses built in Stalinabad the capital city of Tajikistan, now named Dushanbe show a linear plan with terraced two-storey buildings. The facades in white render are detailed with first floor balconies creating a rhythm along the street. The stone balustrades on the balconies and the corbelled parapet roofs give the buildings a classical style, while the sculpted heads to the windows follow the traditional forms of the region.
It is worth noting that the front gardens provided on some of the streets are generous and show an abundance of plants and trees. The scale rose in the early s to five storeys and above. By then, particularly in Moscow, very high standards of spatial provision, construction and finish were creating a suitably high-quality environment for the main public thoroughfares. It is in the bigger cities like Moscow and Leningrad that the majority of the high-rise development took place.
Not only were the external facades considered but the internal detailing and provision was deemed important and given suitable attention. Examples of some of the indoor communal spaces include: staircases with generous proportions and spaces to allow for gatherings of residents; crafted balustrades and grand wooden carved doors specific to each block; iron gates embellished with arches and details giving character to entrances; and glazed partition doors to allow light through the building.
Inside the apartments there were examples of built-in wooden wardrobes with compartments and drawers. While there was a level of standardisation and application of common layouts to housing across the Soviet Union, there was encouragement and attention paid to local vernacular architecture and its incorporation with classical forms.
Arkady Mordvinov, a Soviet architect who became the president of the Academy of Architecture in , pointed out:. The humanism expressed in classical forms serves to unify the architecture of all the national republics, while yet allowing them to preserve traits peculiarly their own.
From the mids and through the s there had been an ideological battle over design. The avant-garde movement, which was developing across the western world, had also taken root in Russia. Its proponents opposed the idea of celebrating traditional forms of architecture and design, instead placing emphasis on new technologies and the machine, considering form to follow function with a focus on clean lines, minimal detailing and geometric form.
After the revolution, the constructivists built many individual commissions across the Soviet Union, which gained support amongst the academics for their formalist approach to architecture and design. Popular discontent with bad modern buildings bred the desire for something that spoke the language of mass aspiration, and with it the need to address the role of architecture.
In , Anatoly Lunarcharsky delivered a speech to the State Academy of Artistic Sciences GAKhN that reinforced a clear approach to design in opposition to that of the constructivists: namely, the application of socialist realism in architecture — socialist realism being a method of artistic reflection otrazheniya and creative work, and not a specift style; a method of artistic expression that uses examples of the world as it is and seeks within that to raise the understanding of the masses and point to what is possible; to help in the creation of the new man.
We came in order to liberate the individual from under the power of the machine … Let the rhythm of the machine certainly become an important element in our culture … but the machine cannot be the centre of our art. Certainly there is a very great deal that can be absorbed from the products of this individual art.
But as a whole it is alien to us …. Lunarcharsky further outlined how proletarian art, including architecture, should not be alien to the masses but come from the art that has developed for centuries.
As Vladimir Lenin rather bluntly pointed out in relation to the constructivist approach to design when speaking to Clara Zetkin:. I do not understand them …. It must grow deep roots in the very midst of the broad mass of workers. It must be understood and loved by them. It must unite the feelings, thoughts, and will of the masses and inspire them. That is all complete nonsense. Proletarian culture must emerge from the steady development of those reserves of experience which humanity has built up under the yoke of capitalism.
Having gone through this ideological battle against the avant-garde constructivists, the state developed flourishing building organisations and institutes that ably tackled the housing problem while maintaining the long-term implications of building structures that not only housed people but also created the environment in which the peoples of the Soviet Union were living their daily lives.
He had involvement in the building institutes and was aware of all the discussions and debates that had taken place previously. At the conference, he made an uncompromising attack on the Academy of Architecture, the president of the academy, Arkady Mordvinov, and the profession as a whole, using the need for more housing as his justification.
These hopeful words of leading architect D Arkin, in , were not to be fulfilled by the state building organisations from the mids onwards. From there on across the Soviet Union mid-rise and high-rise blocks were built to standard plans, with standard elevations based on a set of standard prefabricated concrete elements. The Khrushchyovka, a standardised five-storey housing block, was born and spread like wildfire.
This prefabrication and standardisation was not limited to housing: all cultural and service buildings were also required to be built based on standardised elements.
No longer were the steppes of the Urals and the suburbs of Moscow to be distinct and evoke traditions and characters that celebrated the peoples of the Soviet Union. The landscape of the edges of towns was the same whether you went to Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Sverdlovsk, Tashkent, Nizhny Tagil, Cherepovets or any other city, where entire neighbourhoods still today consist of these large-panel prefabricated buildings.
The art in architecture was removed, and with it the character and aspirations of the people. Opposing imperialism and defending socialism everywhere, Ivor did everything he could to halt the decline of the movement caused by Khrushchevite revisionism. View of Lenin Avenue in Sverdlovsk, , showing the scale of the new town and the incorporation of public spaces lined with trees. Ban extended, but evictions continue. Harpal Brar: Long live Leninism! Marx and Engels on the Paris Commune.